TQ senCrFl komThe central com is located at Leh airport 9 AD 10 A.D. (Mondolkire Ratakiri): (Xinjinag: Tibet) route 219 Xinjiang Postal map spelling: Sinkiang or "Ice Jecen" in Manchu Francis Younghusband in Aksu Mustagh pass Hunza valley the road builders....road less ness motorways 1955 motorway masterplan....dicomisioning roads in (or)klind the peoples I.P. central com The earliest Uyghur script was derived from Sogdian (and, therefore, ultimately from Aramaic), and was written vertically along a 'spine'. From the 11th century the Uyghurs began using an Arabic-based script similar to that used for Farsi and Urdu and adapted to write Turkic. It was later used to write the very Persianised form of literary Turkic known as Chagatai used in Xinjiang and elsewhere. Then, between the 1930s and 1980s there were four reforms of the Arabic-based script including Cyrillic and Roman- (or, rather, pinyin-)based scripts. In 1984 the Chinese reintroduced a modified Arabic form. Since then efforts have been made at Xinjiang University and among Uyghurs to develop a new romanised orthography more compatible with the use of computers. Additionally, all Uyghur children now must study Chinese in school which, with its immense body of non-alphabetical characters and uninflected tonal system, seems to be particularly difficult for Uyghur students, few of whom learn Chinese well enough to enter university. These rapid changes, imposed by outsiders, have had a very disruptive effect on Uyghur life, culture, and literature.